Raman microspectroscopy Lab.

Spettrometro Raman

Lab. Head: Prof. Maria Luce Frezzotti (maria.frezzotti@unimib.it)



Location: U3 building, floor -2, room 2140


Raman spectrometer Horiba Jobin Yvon LabRAM HR Evolution. The system is equipped with an Olympus BXFM microscope for petrographic observations in transmitted and reflected light, connected to a 5Mpx camera (objectives: 5X, 10X, LWD 50X e 100X, spot of about 1 µm). The presence of a motorized sample holder and of a confocal system allows the acquisition of profiles and bi- and tri-dimensional maps. The stage is compatible with a LINKAM THMS600 heating/freezing system for fluid inclusions studies.

The spectrometer has focal distance of 800 mm, it is provided with a green Nd laser (532 nm, 300mW power), two diffraction gratings (1800 and 600 grooves/mm), and a CCD detector (1024 x 256 px, -60°C). It is also provided with a nine heels filters system (100%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 3%, 1%, 0,1% e 0,01%), combined with EDGE and ULF (Ultra Low Frequency) filters.

The system is connected with a PC station provided with the Labspec 6 software in Windows 10 environment.


Analyses of Raman spectra on natural samples and thin/thick double polished sections. Acquisition of 2D and 3D maps, and spectral profiles.

For the cost of the laboratory analyses consult the price list (ZA - Microspettroscopia Raman).

Research projects in progress
• Carbon cycling and Earth control on the livable planet: connecting deep key carbon sources to surface CO2 degassing by transfer processes - Connect4Carbon”. PRIN2017LMNLAW
diagramma a blocchi con organizzazione del progetto

Schematic representation of the project strategy: five Research Units (RU) are involved and organised in three working packages. Image from https://prin2017.wixsite.com/connectforcarbon/strategy site.

• Fluids drive the evolution of the continental crust: influence of pathway, neworks, fluxes, and time scales - Fluid Net. MSCA-ITN 956127 2021
immagine di inclusioni fluide

Figures by Frezzotti (2019; Nature Geosciences). a- Distribution of fluid inclusions in garnet cores (grt; blue dotted line). b- Aqueous fluid inclusions containing diamond (dmd), Mg-calcite (Mg-cc), and rutile (rt). c- Schematic formation pathway for diamonds from dissolved organic and inorganic carbon compounds in deep hydrous fluids.

• “Global patterns and predictors of microplastic occurrence and abundance in lentic systems”– PI: Research Group of Ecology and Management of Freshwater Ecosystems, DISAT – UNIMIB
• Raman Spectroscopic Study of Apollo 11 melt inclusions – CAPTEM request #3148
microfotografia di inclusione vetrosa in olivina

Photomicrograph of a melt inclusion hosted in a olivine of a lunar basalt (Apollo 11 mission) taken using transmitted light.

Representative Publications based on Raman analysis during the last 5 years
  • Bodnar, R. J., & Frezzotti, M. L. (2020). Microscale Chemistry: Raman Analysis of Fluid and Melt Inclusions. Elements 16 (2): 93–98. https://doi.org/10.2138/gselements.16.2.93
  • Esposito, R., Lamadrid, H. M., Redi, D., Steele-MacInnis, M., Bodnar, R. J., Manning, C. E., & Lima, A. (2016). Detection of liquid H2O in vapor bubbles in reheated melt inclusions: Implications for magmatic fluid composition and volatile budgets of magmas?. American Mineralogist, 101(7), 1691-1695 https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2016-5689
  • Esposito, R., (2021). A protocol and review of methods to select, analyze and interpret melt inclusions to determine pre-eruptive volatile contents of magmas, Chapter 7: Pilar Lecumberri-Sanchez, Matthew Steele-MacInnis, Daniel J. Kontak (Editors) Fluid and Melt Inclusions: Applications to Geologic Processes. Mineralogical Association of Canada short-course (Topics in Mineral Sciences). Volume 49. ISBN: 9780921294634.
  • Frezzotti, M. L. (2019). Diamond growth from organic compounds in hydrous fluids deep within the Earth. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12984-y
  • Oglialoro, E., Frezzotti, M., Ferrando, S. et al. (2017). Lithospheric magma dynamics beneath the El Hierro Volcano, Canary Islands: insights from fluid inclusions. Bulletin of Volcanology, 79, 70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-017-1152-6
  • Remigi, S., Mancini T., Ferrando S., & Frezzotti, M.L. (2021). Interlaboratory Application of Raman CO2 Densimeter Equations: Experimental Procedure and Statistical Analysis Using Bootstrapped Confidence Intervals. Applied Spectroscopy. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003702820987601
  • Robidoux, P., Aiuppa, A., Rotolo, S. G., Rizzo, A. L., Hauri, E. H., & Frezzotti, M. L. (2017). Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua. Lithos, 272, 147-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.12.002
  • Robidoux, P., Frezzotti, M. L., Hauri, E. H., Aiuppa, A. (2018). Shrinkage Bubbles: The C–O–H–S Magmatic Fluid System at San Cristóbal Volcano, Journal of Petrology, 59 (11), 2093–2122. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egy092