Research topics


Since the distant establishment of the Department of Environmental and Land Sciences and the Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, climate change has been one of the reference themes of the University and the, then 2, Departments. Starting from CryoLab back in 1992, where polar paleoclimatic themes were developed, activities have expanded to cover a significant part of the scientific aspects related to climate change. Today, with the new Interdepartmental Center on Climate Change, the Glaciology and Paleoclimate laboratory EUROCOLD Lab (EUROpean COLD laboratory facility), the Polaris Center (Dust in the Environment and Health Risk), the CUDAM Center (University Center for Dating at Milano-Bicocca), and the MaRHE Center focused on tropical marine environments, in the DISAT (Department of Environmental and Earth Sciences) we cover multidisciplinary aspects of understanding, monitoring, evaluating, and managing Climate Change. This research theme, in fact, deals with analyzing the components and mutual relationships of the climatic system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere. The Departmental Excellence Project has been set up on this theme, within which two other departmental laboratories GEMMA and PROVENANCE will be activated. In particular, the following aspects are studied:

Paleoclimatic reconstructions on different time scales and in different areas:

  • Climatic evolution in polar areas and at middle latitudes from glaciological stratigraphy (ice cores), analysis of mechanisms regulating natural climatic variability in order to understand the response of the climatic system to human activities.
  • Cycle of mineral aerosols transported long distances from continental areas to polar ice caps in the late Quaternary and in the present era. Reconstruction of paleo-atmospheric circulation, radiative effects of windblown dust, impact on climate and biogeochemical cycles.
  • Registration of ongoing climate change and recent past in benthic and planktonic organisms, also through biogeochemical proxies, in sediments and sedimentary rocks of the past.
  • Climatic and oceanographic variations through biogenic proxies (nanofossils, diatoms, silicoflagellates, planktonic foraminifera) and transfer function;

Effects on environmental dynamics produced by climate change and human activities:

  • Impact of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat on sediment production and transport in mountain basins,
  • Impact of climate change on biodiversity (distribution and morphology of species),
  • Effect of climate change on vegetation and fauna,
  • Instability produced by sea level variations,
  • Evaluation of the response of biogenic carbonate producers to "ocean acidification";
  • Climate change, main atmospheric circulation patterns and deep lake mixing processes and phyto- and zooplankton cycles, interactions and synergies between climate change and other environmental stressors on the composition, abundance, and phenology of algal and zooplankton communities (with a focus on cyanobacteria).
  • Impact of climate change on coral reefs and development of new ecological approaches aimed at their restoration

Predictive models of bio-ecological, chemical, and physical alterations produced in different environmental matrices:

  • Evolution of ranges and changes in ecological niches of certain animal taxa as proxies to understand the evolution of biodiversity and ecosystem functionalities (distribution and morphology of species),
  • Analysis of future scenarios, with particular reference to invasive species,
  • Extreme weather events;

Processes influencing climate dynamics:

  • Interactions among different components of the climatic system,
  • Climatic modeling at various levels of complexity;

Carbon inventory:

  • Greenhouse gas emissions from soils of various environments, natural and anthropized, with verification of the relationships between emission levels and soil management practices,
  • Carbon accumulation in soil and organic matter balance (soil and oceans as CO2 sinks-emitters),
  • Petrological processes and dynamics within the Earth and their impact on carbon fluxes (subducted lithosphere to mantle and deep degassing mechanisms);

Environmental education including mechanisms for training future teachers, administrators, and decision makers on climate change.



The need to transition from growth based on "unlimited resources" to "sustainable development" that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is widely recognized.

In this context, both basic research and the development of low-impact processes for the production of products from renewable sources are carried out at DISAT; production cycles are studied with the aim of carrying out targeted interventions aimed at preventing the formation of potentially harmful by-products; in addition, requalification and recovery interventions are developed. In particular, the frontier research topics are:

Eco-innovation of processes and products:

  • Deliquescence and crystallization point of atmospheric particulate matter;
  • Modeling of adsorption processes and reactivity of organic compounds on atmospheric particulate matter;
  • Processes of formation of secondary and primary atmospheric particulate matter, studies in smog chambers;
  • Interaction of atmospheric particulate matter and allergic plants;
  • Production of biofuels and innovative biodegradable materials from lignocellulosic sources.
  • Computational study of spectro-photophysical properties of metal-organic complexes of lanthanide ions as luminescent solar concentrators;
  • Organometallic compounds with new electronic properties;
  • Theoretical study of enzymatic systems involved in the transformation of small molecules of environmental relevance;
  • Development of innovative catalysts through modeling studies and laboratory scale;
  • Prevention, measurement, and mitigation of environmental impacts of thermal processes: study of the mechanisms of formation and destruction of organochlorine micro-pollutants;
  • Recovery processes of matter and energy from by-products or waste;
  • Evaluation of the environmental impact of the entire life cycle of a product according to the Life Cycle Thinking approach.
  • Study on the use of enzymes and biomimetic systems for the modification of polyphenols and realization of nanostructures (fibers, particles) based on polyphenols.
  • Development of functional polymers based on refined and homogenized lignin for biomedical applications.

Degraded and/or contaminated environments:

  • Environmental requalification;
  • Phytoremediation;
  • Wastewater treatment processes;
  • Use of microalgae for the purification of urban and industrial effluents and valorization of the biomass produced;
  • Development of analytical techniques for monitoring emerging pollutants and substances of interest in environmental, food, toxicological, and forensic fields;
  • Definition of minimum vital discharges in watercourses and optimization of diversion management;
  • Characterization and study of minerals potentially useful as traps for radionuclides and of secondary minerals that can form in the confinement of nuclear waste;
  • Studies for the assessment and reduction of noise pollution.
  • Characterization and monitoring of contaminated soils.
  • Study of erosion in soils of mountain environments.
  • Development of bioremediation methodologies for the treatment of contaminated sites and evaluation of biological processes in contaminated environments.
  • Study of microbial communities in contaminated and non-contaminated environments, and definition of the processes that determine their structure.
  • Study of polyphenol production in (micro)algae as a function of nitrate and phosphate pollution of surface waters for monitoring and analysis purposes.
  • Coral Restoration.
  • Assessment of coral health status.

Agricultural and Forestry Systems:

  • Renewable energy from biomass;
  • Optimization of the wood supply chain.
fotografia di una frana

Understanding the physical, chemical, biological, and geological characteristics of the environment and territory, both natural and subject to anthropogenic alterations, is the fundamental starting point for any activity aimed at managing, conserving, and recovering environmental systems and natural resources, as well as protecting human beings and their activities. It is therefore a cross-cutting activity across various clusters.

In particular, it represents the essential knowledge base for the assessment, prediction, prevention, and mitigation of environmental and geological risks. This strategic and multidisciplinary theme, albeit with different modalities and methodologies, has always been one of the main research areas of both sections of the Department.

The main lines of research on these complex topics, developed also in relation to the needs of European regulations (such as the Water Framework Directive, Habitat Directive, REACH, etc.) can be summarized as follows:

Environmental Monitoring

  • Development of remote sensing techniques for the study and modeling of environmental processes in natural and semi-natural systems at local, regional, and global scales.
  • Monitoring of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of different compartments of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Monitoring and classification of habitats and landscapes.
  • Development of territorial environmental databases using geomatics methods and tools to support Geoenvironmental issues.
  • Acoustic monitoring in urban and extra-urban areas.

Environmental Risks

  • Development, application, and validation of models for predicting the distribution and environmental fate of contaminants, both natural and xenobiotic, in different environmental compartments (surface and groundwater, air, soil, sediments, biomass).
  • In vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies of the effects and mechanisms of action, on humans and the environment, of traditional and emerging environmental contaminants, including nanomaterials.
  • Molecular modeling studies for understanding the biological action mechanisms of environmental contaminants.
  • Development of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships) models for in-silico prediction of environmental and toxicological properties of chemical substances.
  • Assessment of the effects of multiple stress factors (chemical, physical, biological, climatic, etc.) on humans and the environment at different hierarchical levels of bio-ecological organization (from the cell to the landscape).
  • Estimation, characterization, and mapping of risk for humans and the environment and alterations of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at different scales (local, regional, global).
  • Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment.

Geological Risks

  • Genesis and evolution of submerged relief forms and assessment of geological risks in marine environments.
  • Paleoseismology, seismic and volcanic hazard.
  • Prediction of slope instability, development of evolutionary models, and alert criteria.
  • Assessment of degradation risks (erosion, acidification, salinization, contamination) of soils.
  • Assessment of natural hazard, risk, and multi-risk phenomena, the efficiency of mitigation interventions, and geomorphological-ecological impacts of hydraulic works.
  • Characterization of prehistoric seismic activity and evaluation of weakness zones on active volcanoes.

The natural resources of our planet, if properly valued, utilized, and transformed, can make a significant contribution to environmental enhancement and the evolution of the socio-economic system, thus assuming strategic importance. The management of these resources must therefore be oriented towards reconciling the environmental and territorial dimension with the anthropic one. The research lines developed at DISAT in this area are numerous, addressing both renewable and non-renewable resources, with a multidisciplinary approach involving ecology, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics, which has characterized our department since its establishment.

SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER RESOURCES - Water resources represent a strategic sector for the entire community and, within the multidisciplinarity of our department, are analyzed in the widest possible spectrum. In particular, the developed aspects include:

  • Evaluation of the quality of lentic (lakes, marshes, ponds) and lotic (streams, creeks, rivers) environments, and restoration of their naturalness and functionality; study, enhancement, and strengthening of the structural and functional biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems;
  • Planning for the sustainable use of water resources at the basin level with assessment of the effects of multiple pressures on river environments and identification of strategies and interventions to minimize their impacts, with particular reference to ecological flows;
  • Study and modeling of hydrogeological systems, in porous soils, for qualitative and quantitative characterization of groundwater resources and their relationship with surface waters: evaluation of nitrate and pesticide percolation into the aquifer through the unsaturated zone; flow and transport, also reactive, of natural and anthropogenic contaminations in shallow and deep aquifers;
  • Study of groundwater in fractured and karst aquifers through analysis with fluorescent tracers, well monitoring of vertical flows, and hydro-geophysical investigations; groundwater flow modeling for slope stability issues, management, and contamination of water resources;
  • Study of hydrogeological issues in developing countries in the context of international cooperation, in collaboration with Non-Governmental Organizations;
  • Design, development, and implementation of hydrogeological databases for three-dimensional reconstructions of aquifer characteristics.

PLANT AND ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY - A highly articulated research line within the department, also addressing environmental education and scientific dissemination, includes:

Terrestrial Environment

  • Study, monitoring, conservation, recovery, and protection of animal and plant biodiversity and ecosystem services;
  • Identification of sustainable environmental and land management models for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services and analysis of anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity;
  • Soil conservation, land, and landscape management and planning;
  • Use of acoustic techniques for assessing terrestrial environmental quality.

Marine Environment

  • Biodiversity and conservation of marine bioconstructors;
  • Mapping, characterization, and modeling of the distribution of benthic habitats at different spatial scales;
  • Impact assessments of anthropogenic pressures and evolution of benthic environments in historical times;
  • Use of acoustic techniques for assessing the marine environment.

HYDROCARBONS - Scientific activities in the field of hydrocarbon research can be summarized into two lines:

  • Development of methods for identifying unconventional reservoir types, such as the study of heavy mineral associations aided by innovative technologies (e.g., Raman, QEMSCAN) for provenance analysis and correlation in the absence of biostratigraphic markers, in collaboration with European Centers of Excellence;
  • Study of the genesis, composition, and structure of organic rocks as potential reservoirs.

EXTRACTION OF MATERIALS AND GEOSITES - The research carried out in the department is articulated in:

  • Research and characterization of metallic minerals, industrial rocks, and ornamental rocks, in terms of chemical, petrographic, mineralogical, and technical properties;
  • Study of environmental issues related to the extraction and processing of mineral raw materials.

SOILS - Research on soils particularly touches on three themes:

  • Detailed pedological mapping (for taxonomic direction and for soil properties and characteristics), with explicitation of the soil-landscape model and resort to digital soil mapping techniques (statistical methods, artificial neural networks);
  • Detailed mapping of soil characteristics, obtained from full-field geophysical surveys and through targeted soil sampling, serving precision agriculture techniques;
  • Evaluation of carbon storage in soil as organic matter, in relation to different uses (agricultural, forestry, pastoral, anthropogenic) and various management practices, with a view to reducing atmospheric CO2.
fotografia di minerali in sezione sottile al microscopio

The research scope integrates various competencies in the study of the hydro-mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms, viscosity, and rupture of geomaterials at different spatial (from micro to macro) and temporal (from processes of very long duration to catastrophic ones) scales, under different stress conditions and in relation to various applications. These include tectonic deformation; seismogenesis; geomorphological evolution of the landscape, also in relation to climate change; research and exploitation of strategic and industrial fluids and minerals; underground storage of fluids and gases (e.g., CO2) and analysis of associated risks; fluid circulation and use for geothermal purposes; underground excavations; interactions between engineering works and geological environment; control of thermal conditions of aquifers as markers of climate variations and anthropic disturbance; analysis of slope instability processes (nucleation, temporal evolution, collapse) and prevention/mitigation of associated risks, in different geodynamic and morphoclimatic contexts.

The physical properties of geomaterials are the result of the sequence of geological processes that have characterized their formation and evolution. Furthermore, a robust understanding of the behavior and properties of geomaterials is fundamental for modeling geological processes and solving practical problems.

The general objectives of the research are therefore to:

  • quantitatively characterize the physical and hydro-mechanical properties of geomaterials;
  • analyze the processes that control their evolution in the long and short term;
  • model the hydro-mechanical aspects of geological, geomorphological, and applied problems.

These are pursued with research activities conducted at different scales and under different conditions:

  • microscale: microstructural and textural characterization of rocks with complex fabric, through optical and electron microscopy, and image analysis; characterization of rock physical properties through non-destructive analysis (MicroCT, porosimetry, tribological analysis, propagation of elastic waves, thermographic analysis); microphysical modeling of rheological properties;
  • micro-mesoscale: physical and hydro-mechanical characterization of low and high-strength soils and rocks in laboratory and field, under different stress conditions, development of innovative techniques and equipment for constitutive modeling; characterization and modeling of rheological and hydro-mechanical behavior, including time-dependent behavior, of fault rocks and cataclastic shear zones associated with surface processes (e.g., large landslides); constitutive modeling of chemical-physical degradation phenomena of soft rocks and of damage and progressive failure processes of brittle rocks;
  • meso-macro scale: geometric and hydro-geomechanical characterization of fractured rock masses through terrain techniques, reconstruction of Digital Outcrop Models from 3D surveys (e.g., TLS, photogrammetry), quantitative analysis from remotely sensed data from terrestrial, airborne, and satellite platforms (IR thermography, multispectral sensors, SAR); modeling of discrete fracture networks (DFN) applied to fault zones, slope stability, circulation of hydrothermal fluids, and hydrocarbons; 3D geological modeling of tectonic units and geological structures using traditional survey techniques, remote sensing, and GIS integration, for regional geology and tectonics studies, tectonophysics and paleostress, seismogenesis, reconstruction of balanced sections, and related applications (e.g., hydrocarbons); numerical modeling of geodynamic processes; numerical modeling of the hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical behavior of soils and rocks.

The various research activities contribute synergistically to the solution of basic and applied research problems, which can be grouped into the following macro-themes.

Experimental Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of Geological Materials and Structures

Objectives: provide contributions in the field of physical-mechanical characterization and modeling of geomaterials at different spatial and temporal scales, with reference to: experimental characterization of geological materials and structures, constitutive modeling of the hydro-mechanical behavior of materials, study of fluid-rock interaction processes, alteration, damage, deformation, and rupture and related effects on material properties. Applications to: geological-applied, geomorphological, and engineering problems (e.g., slope stability, mines and underground excavations, large-scale works); seismogenic faults; circulation of geofluids (hydrothermal, hydrocarbons, water, CO2). 3D Geological and Geomechanical Modeling at Site Scale Objectives: develop innovative and integrated techniques for quantitative geological and geomechanical characterization and modeling based on laboratory data, geological mapping in the field and Digital Outcrop Models, and remote sensing (e.g., satellite, photogrammetry, laser scanner), as a basis for 3D geological representation, reconstruction of geological and geomorphological processes, and solution of applied problems through specific models.

Advanced Numerical Modeling for Geological, Geomorphological, and Applied Applications

Objectives: simulate hydraulic (fluid circulation and fluid-rock interaction) and mechanical (damage, time-dependent deformation and rupture of geomaterials with high and low porosity) processes relevant to the solution of geological (e.g., seismogenesis, active tectonics), geomorphological (e.g., evolution of topographic stresses and influences on damage processes and landscape evolution in different morphogenetic systems) and engineering (underground excavations, slope stability at different spatial/temporal scales, geomaterial-structure interactions) problems.


The object of research is the tectonic and erosive processes that determine the evolution of the Earth's surface and the quantification of sediment flows derived from them, considering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

The natural processes of sediment production and transport have been often radically altered in the last century due to the exponential increase in population and human activities. The construction of dams, both within mountainous watersheds and along the course of lowland rivers, associated with the extraction of sediments taken from the riverbed, has led to a decrease in the total fluvial sediment transport. Furthermore, the stabilization of the hydrographic network through river and tributary canalization has interrupted the process that allowed them to meander within the plains.

This is causing a series of serious environmental problems, from the rapid filling of channels and reservoirs to the accelerated erosion of deltas and coastal areas. Only a profound knowledge of natural systems, their balances, and their vulnerability can optimize land use and preserve natural resources along each individual watershed, which represents a unique physiographic unit integrated from mountainous to coastal areas.

The key points of our research are:

The textural, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and geochronological characterization of the different granulometric fractions of sediments, with the aim of understanding and quantitatively reconstructing erosive dynamics in source areas and accumulation in sedimentary basins, especially in response to tectonic regime, climatic variations, and human activities. The multidisciplinary study of stratigraphic successions, which record the different phases of orogenic evolution and exhumation and preserve information on structural levels now eroded, not deducible from the analysis of outcropping rocks. The study of the relationships between tectonic processes and the development of sedimentary basins and the role played by the control of sin-sedimentary tectonic structures on the structure of mountain chains. The quantification of current sediment flows due to mass movements and river transport in relation to lithological and Quaternary conditioning, together with current climatic and anthropogenic forcings.

Research Themes

The research has as its guiding principle the quantitative study of sediment composition as a key to understanding large-scale geological phenomena. Our primary goal is to quantitatively reconstruct erosive dynamics in source areas and accumulation in sedimentary basins, especially in response to tectonic regime, climatic variations, and human activities. After mainly using classical methodologies (thin-section petrography, heavy mineral analysis), over time we have added ever new innovative techniques for sediment study, including diffractometric, chemical, geochronological, isotopic (Sr, Nd) analyses, and especially Raman spectroscopy.


Subduction processes play a fundamental role in Earth's dynamics. The descent of cold lithosphere, accompanied by seismicity and arc magmatism, profoundly alters the thermal and chemical structure of the Earth's mantle. The geodynamic and petrological characterization of deep subduction processes therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach that allows the observation and analysis of natural systems at different scales.

Regional-scale studies will focus on the reconstruction of:

  • rheology and deformation processes
  • P-T-t paths
  • exhumation mechanisms of subducted rock complexes
  • geochemistry of arc magmatism generated during convergence phases.

The study of sedimentary successions in basins associated with subduction zones will provide important constraints for reconstructing subduction processes over time and space. Micro- and nanoscale geochemical and structural analysis of metamorphic and magmatic rocks and their mineral constituents, combined with thermodynamic and petro-thermomechanical modeling, will allow the evaluation of the effects of subduction on the Earth's mantle and the investigation of the deep cycle of C-O-H volatile phases, governed by high-pressure metamorphic reactions of hydrated minerals such as serpentine. Structural analysis, from mega- to micro- and nano-scale, will investigate the seismic cycle along plate interfaces. The study of subduction and exhumation processes will also be applied to natural asbestos present in mafic and ultramafic rocks, providing the basis for a better assessment of their environmental impacts.


1) Geodynamic evolution of collisional belts.

1.1) Evolution of collisional belts. Recognition of pre-, syn-, and post-collisional deformation on a continental scale and characterization of deformational and metamorphic events through their integration with absolute dating. Integration of petrological and structural data on a microcrystalline scale for the study of ophiolite units to define their formation environment (basin, back-arc, intra-arc), age, and emplacement mechanisms in accretionary prism contexts. Integration of structural, geochemical, and geochronological data into geodynamic, numerical, and analogue models, aimed at integrating various geological databases and their quantitative interpretation (Alps, Apennines, Cimmerian orogeny: Pamir, Iran, Karakoram). Use of exhumed subduction complexes to study the seismic cycle at plate interfaces (megathrust and collisional earthquakes). Development of cartographic projects.

1.2) Reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of volcanic arc and back-arc zones, and analysis of relationships with volcanic activity. Geometric, kinematic, and chronological characterization of the main structures present in intra-arc and back-arc zones of active convergent margins, with particular reference to the Miocene-Pliocene and Quaternary evolution. The collected data are compared with the distribution and typology of volcanic edifices over time and interpreted through modeling of involved geodynamic, tectonic, and volcanic processes. Special attention is given to the study of magma feeding structures such as dikes, inclined sheets, and sills, in correspondence to eroded volcanic systems, and their effects on crustal deformations through analogue, numerical models, and field data. The ultimate goal is to define the relationships between tectonic structures and magmatic activity.

1.3) Study of sedimentary processes in convergent margins. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and geochronological study of sedimentary successions deposited in forearc basins, residual oceanic basins, and forearc basins is an essential tool for reconstructing the evolution over time and space of a convergent margin. There is indeed a close feedback relationship between tectonic and sedimentary processes at subduction zones. Volumes of sediment transferred from orogenic sources to oceanic trenches condition accretion dynamics, deformation mechanisms, and the development of topography.

1.4) Kinematic constraints for geodynamic reconstructions. Kinematic constraints derived from the analysis of the shallowest levels of subduction zones, in the field and in the laboratory, represent a fundamental contribution to geodynamic reconstructions and an interpretative key for deep crust and mantle geophysical investigations. The integrated study of subduction zones at different structural levels will allow investigating widely debated phenomena, such as the exhumation of high-pressure (ultra)metamorphic rocks and magmatism in Alpine-type orogens.

2) Deep Earth volatile element cycle and applications of mineralogical and petrological processes for environmental purposes

2.1) Role of volatiles (C-O-H-S) in orogenic and intraplate magmatism. Characterization of the evolution of volatile phases in orogenic and intraplate magmas and analysis of metasomatic processes in the source mantle aimed at reconstructing the relationships between magmatism and geodynamics. Study areas include: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Yellowstone, Canaries, and Cape Verde.

2.2) Deep Earth volatile element cycle (C-O-H-S). Analysis of volatile elements and compounds and their behavior at high pressure in metamorphic minerals and fluids to understand the transfer of elements from the subducting plate to the mantle and subsequent deep degassing processes, also referring to the oxidation state of the slab and mantle system (e.g., diamond genesis). Data from natural case studies (Western and Central Alps, Western Gneiss Region, Dabie-Sulu) will be integrated with predictive thermodynamic and computational chemical models.

2.3) Serpentine: structure, properties, and environmental effects. Microstructural and nanotribological crystallographic characterization of serpentinite group minerals to explain rock mechanics and the hydration and carbonation mechanisms of the overlying mantle during forearc subduction at depths. Use of antigorite as a reservoir for environmental CO2 storage and evaluation of environmental impacts induced by the presence of natural asbestos.

2.4) Recovery and characterization of Critical Raw Materials (CRM). Research and characterization of CRMs (e.g., REEs, PGEs, Co, Ga, Ge, In, Li, Nb, Ta), with particular attention to their recovery from tailings and mining by-products, in a circular economy perspective.

2.5) Simulation of spatial erosion of silicates and carbon compounds using high-energy laser pulses. Morphological, chemical, and structural characterization of products obtained through laser ablation performed with high-energy laser pulses on solid mineral targets and organic compounds to understand the transformations induced by space weathering processes on planetary bodies.